Membranous channel extending inward from muscle fiber membrane , is the transverse tubules.
Transverse tubules -
Transverse tubules also called the T - tubules , are basically the extensions of the cell membrane that penetrates into the center of the skeletal and the cardiac muscle cells .
T - Tubules are made up of phospholipid bilayer .
T - Tubules are directly connected to the sarcolemma at one of the end , forming a network of the tubules running parallel and perpendicular to the sarcolemma.
Lymphoid nodules in the intestines are called ______________
Peyer's patches are present in the ileum region of small intestine , these are the small mass of the lymphatic tissues or the lymphoid nodules.
The main and important function of Peyer's patch , also known as the aggregated lympoid is -
They plays an important part in the immune system , by avoiding the growth of the pathogenic bacteria in intestines , monitoring the intestinal bacteria populations .
Lymph from the intestinal lymph trunks drains into the ____________ and contains _________ a. lymphatic capillaries; fats
b. cisterna chyl; fats
c. lacteal; proteins
d. blood capillaries; proteins
The correct option is : b. cisterna chyli; fats
Lymph : The fluid that flows in lymphatic system. The intestinal lymph trunks receive the lymph from the intestines it drains into the cisterna chyli.
The lymph is responsible for the transport of fats from the digestive system to the blood and it also transports proteins and excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream.
Therefore, the lymph from the intestinal lymph trunks drains into cisterna chyli and contains fats.
Lymph capillaries surround blood capillaries and pick up excess interstitial fuid to return it to the blood. a. True
The given statement is TRUE
The lymph capillaries are a part of the lymphatic system. They are thin-walled, microvessels which are located in the spaces between the cells and surround the blood vessels.
The function of lymphatic capillaries is to collect the excess interstitial fluid and return it to the blood. The interstitial fluid is the fluid present between the cells.
Therefore, the lymphatic capillaries surround the blood vessels and collects the excess interstitial fluid and returns it to the blood.
Long-term administration of glucocorticoids can induce the following adverse effects EXCEPT: A. Hypertension
C. Peptic ulcer
D. Proximal myopathy
The correct option is : B. Hyperkalaemia
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones. They are a type of corticosteroid steroid hormones and its function is reducing inflammation and suppression of the immune system.
Some of the side effects caused by the long term administration of the glucocorticoids include: Hypertension, Osteoporosis, Peptic ulcer, Hyperglycemia and Proximal myopathy.
Therefore, Hyperkalaemia is not an adverse effect of Long-term administration of glucocorticoids.
Layer of connective tissue that separates a muscle into small bundles called fascicles.
Perimysium is a layer of connective tissue that strengthen and increases the muscle fitness. Perimysium shows direct connection with muscle fibers and epimysium.
The perimysium layer separates the muscle into the small bundles called fascicles with different dimensions. Perimysium regulates the role of epimysial fascia in motor coordination.
Thus, the answer is perimysium.
Lateral forces likely to cause damage to the tibial collateral ligament, ACL, and medial meniscus: a. Hip
I think it’s hip but I’m not positive
Inversion sprains produce damage to the lateral ligaments:
The correct option is : c. Ankle
A sprain is a damage to the ligaments of a joint. A sprain typically occurs when the joint is stretched beyond its functional range of motion or due to a trauma. Sprains are most common to occur in the ankle joint and wrist joint.
About 70-85% of the ankle sprains are inversion sprains. An inversion ankle sprain happens when the foot is inverted out of its functional range of motion. This type of sprain damages the outer or the lateral ligaments of the ankle.
Intracapsular ligaments include the ACL, and PCL:
Knee joins the legs with the thighs. Knee consists of patellofemoral joint and tibiofemoral joint. Knee helps in the process of extension and flexion.
Cruciate ligamnets stabilize the knee structure. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are the intracapsular ligaments of knee.
Thus, the correct answer is option (b).
Intercalated discs and striations are both characteristic of skeletal muscle. a. True
Intercalated discs and striations are both not the characteristic of skeletal muscle so therefore the answer is False
For better understanding, let's explain what skeletal muscles are
- Skeletal Muscle Tissue are muscles that are said to skeletal muscle. muscle that connects both the bone and skin together. They are characterized by:
1. Long, striated fiber
2. Nuclei are pushed off to the side
3. they are Very vascular and
- They have Myofilaments muscle fibers and They are often and Highly cellular and well vascularized. Skeletal and Cardiac muscles do contain striations.
From the above, we can therefore say that the answer that Intercalated discs and striations are both not the characteristic of skeletal muscle so therefore the answer is False, is correct
Learn more about skeletal muscle from:
Intercalated discs and striations are both characteristic of skeletal muscle: False- b.
In the heart dissection you performed, you noted the muscular walls of the ventricles. The walls of the atria, however, were much thinner. Why do you think the ventricular walls are so much thicker that the atrial walls?
The correct answer is that ventricles have to pump blood very far in the body.
The human heart contains four chambers. The right chambers of the heart are the right atrium and right ventricle and left side left atrium and left ventricle.
Ventricles have thick walls than atria as they have a thin wall comparatively because they have to do more work than the atrium. The atria are chambers that gets incoming blood. On the other hand, the chambers of ventricles pump the blood out of the heart. Even the left ventricle has thick walls than the right ventricle. Blood is propelled out of the heart with greater pressure from ventricles compared to the atria.
Thus, the correct answer is that ventricles have to pump blood very far in the body.
In skeletal muscle, the role of the voltage-gated Na + channel is to: a. propagate the action potential from the neuromuscular synapse over the sarcolemma
b. open ligand-gated ionotropic channels at the neuromuscular synapse
c. provide the increase in positive charge that removes the DHP block from the RYR receptor
d. provide the positive charge that moves the tropomyosin molecule on the actin thin filament
e. a and c are correct
The correct option here is e) both a and c are correct
The voltage gated Na+ channel that is present in the skeletal muscle plays a very important role in both -
a) helps in initiating the action potential from the neuro muscular synapse over the sarcolemma and,
c) helps in increasing the positive charge that removes the DHP block from the RYR receptor
These channels helps in initiating the action potential of a person and also in the propagation of the cells.
In regards to the spinothalamic tract, where does the second order neuron cross the midline? a. at that spinal cord segment
b. in the brainstem
c. at the thalamus
d. never crosses midline
The correct answer will be option A.
In spinothalamic tract is a projection with axons which terminates in the thalamic nuclei. This tract comprises of three neuron pathways: primary order neurons, secondary order neurons and tertiary order neurons.
The axons of the secondary order neurons receive the impulse to form the primary order neuron in the dorsal neuron and then crosses the midline at the anterior spinal cord in ventral white commissure to reach the opposite sides. after this neuron passes through the brainstem to the thalamus.
Thus, option A- at that spinal cord segment is the correct answer.
In discussing descending pathways, we talked about neurons whose conductile processes are in the internal capsule. These neurons: a. have their cell bodies in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord
b. have their cell bodies in the precentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex
c. have their cell bodies in the ventral horn of the spinal cord
d. have their cell bodies in the postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex
The correct answer will be option B.
The descending pathway or descending tract is a nervous system which is composed of upper motor neurons which carries the signals from the CNS (brain) to lower neurons.
These upper motor neurons originate in the cerebral cortex of the brain especially "precentral gyrus" or depressions of the cerebrum with their cell bodies in it and axons in the CNS. They pass the impulses via corticospinal tract in which neurons converge and descend through internal capsula.
Thus, option B is the correct answer.
In describing a contracted sarcomere vs. a relaxed sarcomere, the contracted lacks which structures/components, while they are present in the relaxed sarcomere. Where 1. A-band 2. I-band 3. Z discs 4. H-zone 5. M-line
A. 1 & 2
B. 3 & 4
C. 3, 4 & 5
D) 1 & 4
E) 2 & 4
The correct answer will be option E- 2 & 4.
The sarcomere is a segment made up of thick and thin filaments between the two Z-lines or disc of a myofibril.
Sarcomere structurally can be divided into bands:
- A-band- which is also known as the anisotropic filament is made up of thick filaments called myosin.
- H-zone- the zone in the A-band which appears lighter in color in the microscope
- I-band- an isotropic band made of thin filament called actin.
Upon contraction of muscle, these filaments form an overlapped structure due to which I-band shortens along with H-zone of A- band. Due to the shortening of these bands, only A-band without H-zone and I-band appears between two A-lines. These bands upon relaxation again take their normal form.
Thus, option E- 2 & 4 is the correct answer.
In a contracted muscle, which of the following extends from ‘Z’ disc to ‘Z’ disc? A) A-band
The correct answer will be option A - A-band.
The sarcomere is the repeating unit of a myofibril which extends between two z-lines. Under a microscope, a sarcomere can be divided into A- band which is composed of thick myosin only and I-band which consists of thin filament that is actin only.
When a muscle contract then actin and myosin comes in overlapping position due to which I-band shortens and between two z-lines and overlapped structure of thin actin filaments over thick myosin filaments (A-band) is seen.
Therefore, only A-band is seen between two z-lines in a contracted muscle thus, option A is the correct answer.
If work is constant, power increases as time increases.
Power may be defined as the rate of doing work with time. The S.I. unit of power is J/s or watt. The power is a scalar quantity as it has only magnitude and no direction.
The power can be calculated by the formula:
Power = work done/ time taken.
From the formula, it is clear that power is inversely proportional to the time taken by the body. Hence, if the work remains constant, power will decrease with time.
Thus, the answer is false.
If the papillary muscles of the heart fail to contract a. the ventricles will not pump blood.
b. the AV valves will not close properly.
c. the AV valves will not open.
d. the semilunar valves will not open.
e. the atria will not pump blood
The AV valves will not close properly.
Papillary muscles are located on the heart ventricles. These muscles are attached with the cusps of the tricuspid valve. They cover almost 10% mass of the heart.
Papillary muscles helps in the contraction of heart. If these muscles fail to contract, the atrioventricular valves will remain open and does not close properly. This will disturb the functioning of heart.
Thus, the correct answer is option (b)
If angular velocity is constant, decreasing the radius of rotation will result in greater linear velocity. a. True
as we know
v= ω r
where v is linear velocity
w is angular velocity
r is radius of rotation
from the above equation we can clearly observe that linear velocity is directly proportional to radius of rotation.
angular velocity being constant if we decrease radius of rotation linear velocity will also decrease.
Identify the cells of the gastric mucosa that secrete: (a) HCl
(a) HCl : parietal cells
(b) pepsinogen : zymogenic (chief) cells
(c) histamine : enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs) cells
Gastric mucosa, mucous membrane layer present in the stomach contains gastric glands and the gastric pits.
The three types of gastric glands present are- cardiac glands, fundic or oxyntic glands and pyloric glands
(a) HCl : Secreted by the parietal cells present in the fundus
(b) pepsinogen : secreted by the zymogenic (chief) cells present in the oxyntic glands
(c) histamine : secreted by the enterochromaffin-like cells (ECLs) cells present in the oxyntic glands.
How much of the daily calorie intake of Homo erectus hominins do scientists think came from plant material? A-all
The correct answer is option B. most
Homo erectus or handyman or the java man are the hominins were present 6 to 6.5 million years ago. The hominins were first hominins to the body like the homo sapiens with shorter arm and longer leg.
Homo erectus fossils show that they were using tough to chew and brittle foods such as roots, fruits, and vegetables. Many researchers also think that they used to eat meat and marrow and chew bones too. Most of the food or calorie intake of homo erectus was from plants as many scientists and researchers think that this hominins have to modify themselves to eat meat due to environmental conditions and limited resources.
Thus, the correct answer is option B. most.